## Definitions

**Allowable Soil Bearing**

Maximum allowable service bearing pressure on the soil.

**As**

Area of tension reinforcement.

**b**

Effective width of rectangular member.

Block Wt

Weight of the masonry block.

**CL**

Centerline of an element.

**Coefficient of Friction**

Coefficient of friction between the soil and the bottom of the footing used to resist sliding.

**Concrete Weight**

Density of concrete.

**d**

Distance from the compression face of the element to the centerline of the tension reinforcement.

**D**

Dead load.

**db**

Diameter of rebar.

**E**

Seismic load.

**Em**

Modulus of elasticity of masonry.

**Es**

Modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel.

**f’c**

Compressive strength of concrete.

**f’m**

Compressive strength of masonry.

**fa**

Actual masonry axial stress.

**Fa**

Allowable masonry axial stress.

**fb**

Actual masonry bending stress.

**Fb**

Allowable masonry bending stress.

**fs**

Actual tensile stress in masonry rebar.

**Fs**

Allowable tensile stress of masonry rebar.

**fv**

Actual masonry shear stress.

**Fv**

Allowable masonry shear stress.

**fy**

Minimum yield strength of the concrete reinforcing steel.

**h**

Actual height of a stem.

**h’**

Effective height of a stem.

**H**

Soil load.

**L**

Live load.

**M**

Actual service moment.

**Mu**

Actual factored moment.

**P**

Actual service axial load.

**r**

Radius of gyration of a stem.

**S**

Snow load.

**TOF**

Top of footing.

**TOW**

Top of wall.

**V**

Actual service shear.

**vc**

Maximum concrete ultimate factored shear stress.

**vu**

Actual concrete factored shear stress.

**Vu**

Actual concrete factored shear.

**W**

Wind load.

**α**

Wall slope.

**β**

Soil slope behind stem.

**β1**

Factor relating depth of equivalent rectangular compressive stress block to neutral axis depth.

**δ**

Soil-stem friction angle.

**γ**

Soil density.

**Φ**

Soil angle of internal friction.

**Φ**

Concrete stress reduction factor.

**ρ**

Ratio of As to bd.

**σ**

Active or passive soil pressure.